Definition of Snooping in Computer

  • Post author:
  • Post category:دسته‌بندی نشده

There are several methods that users can practice to reduce the likelihood of electronic spying. Here are some common examples: Spying on network security results in the loss of confidentiality of various types of information that should be private for a computer network. This can be one or all of the following: Bus spying or bus sniffing is a scheme in which a consistency controller (snooper) in a cache (a snoopy cache) monitors or spies on bus transactions, and its purpose is to maintain cache consistency in distributed shared memory systems. [Citation needed] A cache that contains a consistency controller (Snooper) is called a Snoopy cache. This system was introduced in 1983 by Ravishankar and Goodman. [1] The downside of bus spying is its limited scalability. Frequent cache spying causes a race with access from a processor, which can increase cache access time and power consumption. Each request must be sent to all nodes in a system. This means that the size of the bus (physical or logical) and the bandwidth it provides should increase as the size of the system increases. [2] Because bus spying does not adapt properly, larger cache-consistent NUMA systems (ccNUMA) tend to use directory-based consistency protocols. To be successful, a eavesdropping attack requires a weakened connection between a client and a server, which the attacker can exploit to redirect network traffic. The attacker installs network monitoring software, the “sniffer”, on a computer or server to intercept data in transit.

However, companies sometimes legally spy on their employees to monitor their use of corporate systems and track internet usage. Governments spy on individuals to gather information to stop terrorism and crime. The main purpose of sniffing is to listen to or read the communication or scroll through the files or system information of the user`s system. One way to reduce unnecessary sniffling is to use a sniffer filter. A Snoop filter determines whether or not a spy should check their cache tag. A Snoop filter is a directory-based structure that monitors all consistent traffic to track the consistency states of cache blocks. This means that the Snoop filter knows which caches contain a copy of a cache block. Thus, it can prevent caches that do not have a copy of a cache block from doing unnecessary spying.

There are three types of filters, depending on the location of the Snoop filters. One is a source filter that resides on a cache page and filters before consistency traffic reaches the shared bus. Another is a target filter that resides in recipient caches and prevents unnecessary searches for cache tags in the recipient kernel, but this type of filtering does not prevent the initial consistency message from the source. Finally, the network dynamically filters consistency traffic in the shared bus. [5] The Snoop filter is also classified as inclusive and exclusive. The included Snoop filter tracks the presence of cache blocks in caches. However, the exclusive Snoop filter monitors for cache blocks in caches. In other words, a hit in the included Snoop filter means that the corresponding cache block is maintained by caches. On the other hand, a hit in the exclusive Snoop filter means that no cache has the requested cache block. [6] There are two types of sniffing protocols, depending on how a local copy of a write operation is handled: Although spying usually has a negative connotation, spying in computer technology can refer to any program or utility that performs a surveillance function.

Therefore, the types of spying methods and tools can be very different, including the following: Another method of identity theft is the IP address, which spoofs the IP address of a computer. With this type of spoofing, it is difficult for other systems to determine where the computer is transmitting data from. Although new software security systems have been developed to identify these types of attacks and block transmissions, they are not accurate. An example of electronic spying is a keylogger, a program that monitors and captures keystrokes, including passwords and credentials, and can intercept email and other private communications and data transfers. Keyloggers are often installed on devices such as PCs and laptops and operate without the user`s knowledge. The keylogger creates a text file that captures each keyboard shortcut issued. Later, hackers who installed the keylogger retrieve the keylogger and scan it for information they can use for other malicious purposes, including access to other protected resources, corruption, or identity theft. Sniffing is a broad term that can include randomly looking at an email that appears on another person`s computer screen, or watching what someone else is typing. More sophisticated spying uses software to remotely monitor activities on a computer or as communication data over a network. A eavesdropping attack, also known as spying or spying, is a theft of information because it is transmitted over a network from a computer, smartphone, or other connected device. If some data is shared by multiple caches and a processor changes the value of the shared data, the change must be propagated to all other caches that contain a copy of the data.

This propagation of changes prevents the system from violating cache consistency. Notification of data changes can be done by bus sniffing. All snoopers monitor every transaction on a bus. When a transaction that modifies a shared cache block appears on a bus, all sniffers verify that their caches have the same copy of the shared block. If a cache contains a copy of the shared block, the appropriate sniffer performs an action to ensure cache consistency. The action can be a drain or invalidation of the cache block. This also involves changing the state of the cache block based on the cache consistency protocol. [2] When a processor writes to a shared cache block, bus spying invalidates all copies shared in the other caches. This method ensures that only one copy of a reference can be read and written exclusively by a processor. All other copies in other caches become invalid. This is the most commonly used sniffing protocol. Msi, MESI, MOSI, MOESI and MESIF protocols fall into this category.

If there is a read error in the local cache, the read request is forwarded to the bus. All cache controllers monitor the bus. If you have cached this address and it is in the “dirty” state, it changes the state to “valid” and sends the copy to the requesting node. The “valid” status means that the cache line is up to date. In the event of a local write error (an attempt to write this value is made, but it is not in the cache), bus spying ensures that all copies in other caches are set to “invalid”. “Invalid” means that a copy existed in the cache but is no longer up to date. When a processor writes to a shared cache block, all shared copies of the other caches are updated by bus spying. This method sends write data to all caches on a bus. It causes more bus traffic than the write-valid protocol.

That is why this method is unusual. The Dragon and Firefly protocols fall into this category. [3] Spying in network security is a technique in which criminals gain unauthorized access to someone else`s data or company data. Spying in network security involves occasionally looking at an email that appears on the user`s computer screen. More sophisticated spying in network security uses software to remotely monitor activities on a computer/network device. The advantage of using bus spying is that it is faster than the directory-based consistency mechanism. Shared data is stored in a common directory that maintains consistency between caches in a directory-based system. Bus spying is usually faster when there is enough bandwidth, as all transactions are a request/response seen by all processors.

[2] Although sniffing is always understood in a harmful sense, sniffing actually means tracking a person`s activity with a program or utility that performs a surveillance function in computer technology. For example, a Snoop server is used to capture network traffic for analysis purposes, and the Snooping protocol monitors information on a computer bus to ensure efficient processing. Caching logic monitors the bus and detects whether cached memory is requested. If the cache is corrupted and shared, and there is a request for this memory on the bus, a dirty spy item provides the data to the requester. At this point, either the requester can take responsibility for the data (mark the data as dirty), or the store can retrieve a copy (the store is said to have “hooked” the data) and the two elements go into the common state. [4] It should also be noted that companies sometimes legitimately spy on employees to monitor their use of business computers and track Internet usage and productivity. The recent trend of employees working from home rather than in the office has further encouraged the use of remote spying tools. The terms espionage and identity theft are often used interchangeably. However, this is not true. Espionage is a form of eavesdropping for the purpose of learning information that should not be visible or shared. Identity theft, on the other hand, is a method used to give an electronic device or network the appearance of a reliable source.