Humorous Laws of Thermodynamics

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British scientist and author C. P. Snow is credited by his students for helping learn the laws of thermodynamics in the 1950s. [4] The second law of thermodynamics is “conservation of entropy”, that you can`t actually achieve 100% efficient use of anything, you always create entropy, so you can`t break even. The first law of thermodynamics is the conservation of energy, you cannot generate more energy in a system than it started, that is, you cannot get something for free, that is, you cannot win. One of Murphy`s famous laws1 states that “things always go from bad to worse when left to their own devices.” This humorous prediction is reflected in some ways in the second law of thermodynamics. This law deals with the concept of entropy. Simply put, entropy is a measure of the disorder of a system. The law of thermodynamics states that “entropy in the universe and in any hypothetical isolated system within it must always increase” [34].

The practical application of this law stipulates that energy must be injected into each system to compensate for the effects of entropy. Without a power supply, the system becomes increasingly messy. It is sometimes given as a general saying without specific reference to the laws of thermodynamics. [9] [10] [11] Ginsberg`s theorem is a parody of the laws of thermodynamics with respect to a person playing a game. The quote was first attributed to poet Allen Ginsberg in a 1975 issue of Coevolution Quarterly. [1] The third law of thermodynamics has no memorable name that I know. “Things at zero Kelvin have zero entropy; They cannot reach zero Kelvin; You cannot achieve zero entropy. The joke is that with Law 1, you are not able to get a net energy gain, nor a complete loss of energy/entropy. Perhaps “you can`t break the system by doing nothing because you can`t achieve `nothing`” is a clearer way of putting it.

The zero law of thermodynamics is more of a mathematical statement; It is said that different systems are different, but can still be treated equally (uh, I think). The “joke” is that all systems are linked/assignable/equivalent/anything, so you can`t get out of “playing the game”. The problem is that a physical circuit is more complex than a theoretical circuit. This additional complexity of a physical circuit is expressed by the following laws of mixed-signal test applications: Ohm, Kirchoff, Faraday, Lenz, and Murphy. This is my understanding based on a simplified knowledge of the laws of thermodynamics, as my chemistry teacher AP taught me in high school: 0. (Consequence of the zero law of thermodynamics) 1. You can`t win. (Consequence of the first law of thermodynamics) 2. You can`t break even.

(Consequence of the second law of thermodynamics) 3. You can`t even get out of the game. (Consequence of the third law of thermodynamics) So far, I have talked about the requirements that apply to our construction activity, and they are presented on this slide. So far, quality assurance has not been mentioned. A computer makes as many mistakes in two seconds as 20 men who have been working for 20 years. The first slide (Fig. 1) is a calendar that illustrates typical activities during construction. Two activities are required for the entire sequence of events to install a device or system.

They are the reception of information and material. Once we have received the drawings (our construction instructions) and the material (our kit parts), we are ready to proceed with the actual construction work. This applies to both the nuclear and conventional parts of the plant. Therefore, a trace length of 10 MHz has a trace length of one centimeter and a reactance of 0.62 ohms. For a 50 ohm system, this can result in an error of more than 1%. The inductance is directly related to the length and surface of the conductor. Short wide traces have the lowest inductance. Long narrow traces have a high inductance. This and other similar accidents established Murphy`s Law as an important principle in the oil and gas industry. The origin of Murphy`s Law is not entirely clear. During an internet search, I found the following information, but I am not sure of its authenticity.

It seems that the first mention of this came from a US Air Force base in 1949, when tests were measured of the human response to very high delays. In the first tests, the strain gauges measured nothing. Captain Murphy, who was in charge of the installation, was not in cooperative mode with the team and refused to calibrate the gauges before the actual test. He or his assistants had gauges wired in the wrong direction. As a result, nothing was measured. He blamed the failure of his assistants, saying, “If there`s a way to do something wrong, he`ll find it.” For example, a 16-bit ADC with a 10-volt full-scale input has an LSB value of 153 μV. To obtain a margin of error of 1/2 of an LSB, the charging board circuit cannot generate more than 76 μV. It`s not much, Bubba. Among the puzzles often cited in AI literature are missionaries and cannibals, painted squares, the traveling salesman, and the problems of Hanoi towers (or Hanoi towers). The solution to these puzzles is essentially treated as research. A special form of research applied to puzzles is mid-range analysis. The aforementioned minimum requirement of 50% defect reduction per generation and the inverse empirical law of defect size distribution present significant challenges for all IC manufacturers, leading to considerable effort to reduce errors in order to meet the performance target.

In advanced technology nodes such as 22 and 14 nm, the average defect size decreased to about a few nanometers. These small dimensions pose challenges for the development of measurement techniques with appropriate resolution to detect defects. In addition, they are incentivizing the equipment and consumables industries as well as integrated circuit manufacturers to develop integrated approaches to reduce errors and more efficient cleaning processes. What would be the effect of a 5 cm trace (default width of 0.25 mm) between the analog source of the test system and 16-bit A/D with an input impedance of 5 K? Although the law was supposed to be a statement about scientific property, it was taken up by “philosophers” who defined the system as a car, a house, an economy, a civilization, or anything that became messy. By this extrapolation, the law explains why an office or garage becomes more and more crowded until a purge (energy injection) is initiated. Gases diffuse and mix in irreversible processes, unmaintained buildings eventually disintegrate and engines (highly ordered systems) erupt without constant injection of maintenance energy. Once a rig has been commissioned, it will continuously produce oil and gas. Any closure for any reason will have a significant financial impact. For example, suppose a platform is designed for 40,000 BOPD. When this book was written, the average price of oil was $105/B. When I did the last reviews, it dropped to less than $50/B.

Who knows how much a barrel of oil will cost when this book is published. A single day of downtime for this $105/B platform would cost $4,200,000. W. Kent Muhlbauer, in Pipeline Risk Management Manual (third edition), 2004 Two – actually three! – I have learned from this beautiful Swiss watch: firstly, elastic integrated pressure seals tend to accidentally detach due to sufficient size force acting in the opposite direction to the single assembly direction. Second, integrated elastic pressure seals can be protected against accidental loosening by incorporating a safety device.13 Again, there are two basic approaches to designing safety. The first to be described here is to combine more than just an assembly movement. The second, described in section 4.6, is to add certain additional features that improve snap-on performance in one or more ways, including increased safety against accidental releases. The signal source hardware of the ATE system can include force and sensor connections that allow the source to correct any voltage drop due to trace resistance. The output of the source circuit behaves like an operational amplifier configured as a force control loop. The operational amplifier controls its output to what is necessary to balance the two input levels. To force a voltage drop in the power line, the output of the operational amplifier creates a voltage offset to correct the difference between the reference and measurement wires. The procedures available to us are few and are used when necessary.

They allow us to purchase the items on behalf of the designer and initiate the ordering and purchasing processes, so that our procurement and procurement department is involved during the manufacturing phase. They also provide drawings and other requirements such as materials, inspections and testing, code classifications, and records for locally manufactured items. The presence of defects is the most critical performance criticism in Si-based semiconductor devices. Defects on the wafer surface are known to cause short circuits or open circuits and affect the performance and reliability of the device (Figure 17.1). In order to minimize the likelihood of Murphy`s laws being demonstrated, a third process (Fig. 5) within our quality assurance program is to review requirements when performing activities. For example, for the Site Handling activity, we may rely on inspection protocols, checklists and test protocols to verify the work performed by our trades or contractors.